Joe Lauer, Wisconsin Corn Agronomist
The recent high pressure ridge that has settled over Wisconsin has meant millions of dollars to farmers in reduced drying costs. The favorable weather of sunny, warm days with little rain has allowed the 2015 corn crop to dry faster than normal. Last week farmers in northern Wisconsin had corn below 25% moisture.
There is a trade-off though. With high fuel prices and/or low grain prices, it is important to let corn grain dry in the field as much as possible, yet hold harvest losses at a reasonable level. Most corn hybrids mature when the grain has about 30% moisture. Ideally harvest should begin around 25% kernel moisture and be complete by the time grain reaches 20%. Corn ears that are too dry can break from the plant and drop to the ground. Also, kernels can shatter off the ear as they are stripped from the plant by the combine head.
Kernel Moisture Ranges (%) for Harvesting Corn for Various Uses
33-40% Kernel moisture = Silage harvest
29-32% Kernel moisture = High Moisture Corn (ensiled)
25-26% Kernel moisture = Ideal for combining
20-23% Kernel moisture = Ideal for picking
< 20% Kernel moisture = field losses increase, but cost of drying shell corn is reduced
Once the kernel is mature (black layered) the drydown of corn grain is a simple drying process subject to weather conditions and most consistently associated with degree-days (Hallauer and Russell, 1961). Factors that have been shown to speed the rate of drying include premature death (Troyer and Ambrose, 1971), physical structure of the seed coat or pericarp (Purdy and Crane, 1967), a low number off loose, short husks (Troyer and Ambrose, 1971), and ear angle and date of husk death (Cavalieri and Smith, 1985). Factors not associated with faster drydown were husk and shank characteristics and the shape or size of ears (Crane et al., 1959)
This year it will be even more important because of high yields and the potential for lodging, especially for growers with a long harvest season due to acreage demands. In years past, European corn borer caused increased lodging and ear drop. All are reasons to pay attention to corn harvesting. As harvest is delayed from October to December, losses can increase 5 to 18%. Of course there is always a risk of 100% loss due to a storm or some other bad weather event.
Harvest decisions are affected by the kind of drying and storage facilities available and depends upon the use of the grain. Grain stored for a long period of time (> 1 year) must be dried to less than 14% which is not likely in a field situation, so some artificial drying must occur. Corn stored above 15% moisture is subject to heating from the natural respiration of the grain and molds present. As temperatures rise so does humidity which causes molds, insects and bacteria to grow and decreasing the amount of time that the grain can be stored before it goes out of condition. Regardless of the moisture in stored grain, aeration is needed to control moisture migration.
Wisconsin Corn Agronomy – Grain Harvesting
Eckert, D.J., R.B. Hunter, and H.M. Keener. 1987. Hybrid maturity-energy relationships in corn drying. National Corn Handbook NCH-51.
Nichols, T.E. 1988. Economics of On-Farm Corn Drying. National Corn Handbook NCH-21.
Cavalieri, A.J., and O.S. Smith. 1985. Grain Filling and Field Drying of a Set of Maize Hybrids Released From 1930 to 1982. Crop Sci. 25:856-860.
Crane, P.L., S.R. Miles, and J.E. Newman. 1959. Factors Associated with Varietal Differences in Rate of Field Drying in Corn. Agron. J. 51:318-320.
Hallauer, A.R., and W.A. Russell. 1961. Effects of selected weather facttors on grain moisture reduction from silking to physilogic maturity in corn. Agronomy Journal 53.
Purdy, J.L., and P.L. Crane. 1967. Influence of pericarp on differential drying rate in “mature” corn (Zea mays L.). Crop Science 7:379-381.
Troyer, A.F., and W.B. Ambrose. 1971. Plant Characteristics Affecting Field Drying Rate of Ear Corn. Crop Sci 11:529-531.